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Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

JOSÉ ROBERTO AGUILAR

Aguilar, José Roberto (1941-) ARTISTA PLÁSTICO

Futebol I (1966);
Woman (1997).

José Roberto Aguilar nasceu em São Paulo em 1941. Em 1958 já participava da vida cultural brasileira através do movimento Kaos, manifestação vanguardista que incluía sessões de poesia, literatura e performance. Em 1961, realiza sua primeira exposição. Em 1963, é selecionado para a Bienal Internacional de São Paulo. Em 1965 junto com artistas nacionais e internacionais, participa da famosa mostra OPINIÃO-65, no Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro. Em 1967, recebe o Prêmio Itamarati na Bienal de São Paulo, onde volta a expor em 1969.

Durante a agitada década de 60, centraliza sua ação no atelier que possuía na Rua Frei Caneca, freqüentado por grande parte dos responsáveis pela renovação política e cultural por que passava a vida brasileira. Na virada dos anos 70, é um dos criadores que se vê obrigado a viver no exterior. Morou em Londres, realizou exposições em Birmingham. Retorna ao Brasil em 1973, faz exposições no Rio e em São Paulo.

Entre 1974 e 1975, vive em Nova York, EUA, onde começa a rel9zar um trabalho pioneiro em videoarte. Convidado para a Bienal de São Paulo em 1977, realiza a peça performática "Circo Antropofágico", com 12 monitores de vídeo no palco. Recebe o Prêmio Governador do Estado. Em 1978, participa de videoperformances no Beauburg, em Paris, e no Festival de Vídeoarte de Tóquio. Em 1979 expõe novamente na Bienal de São Paulo.

Na década de 80, Aguilar desenvolveu grande atividade como pintor, com constantes exposições. É um dos artistas brasileiros com maior participação em mostras no exterior, sobretudo nos EUA e na Alemanha. Paralelamente a isto, reforça sua imagem de multimídia com inúmeras performances: criação e apresentação da Banda Performática; realização de montagens e espetáculos em praças públicas, com o espetacular megaevento em homenagem a Revolução Francesa, em 1989, onde colocou 300 artistas em cena, em frente ao Estádio Municipal do Pacaembu. Compõe músicas, grava discos, escreve e edita livros. Desenvolve suas ligações com a religiosidade e a capacidade humana de transcendência. Em seu trabalho são constantes as demonstrações de não ter medo de experimentar.

Nos anos 90, deu continuidade às suas múltiplas atividades. Realizou megaexposições com quadros de grandes dimensões, no MASP, em 1991, e no MAM/SP em 1996, além de exposições no exterior. Participa da homenagem a Bardi, no Memorial da América Latina e da coleção metrópoles na Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo em 2001/ 2002. Com o diretor da Casa das Rosas, dinamizou este espaço cultural com exposições sobre a cultura brasileira. Com mais de 30 anos de presença no panorama cultural, consolidou uma posição ímpar que se caracteriza pela diversidade e coerência. Como escritor, tem quatro livros: A divina Comédia Brasileira (1981), A Canção de Blue Brother (1983), A Revolução Francesa de Aguilar (1989) e Hercules (1994).



publicado por LUCIANO às 18:30
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

EUGÈNE EMMANUEL VIOLLET-LE-DUC

Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène (1814-1879), Arquiteto francês:

Restauração da Igreja de Vézelay;
Início da restauração da Catedral de Notre Dame (1841) em Paris, na França.

In 1876, the well known French architect Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, in Lausanne for the renovation of the cathedral, also drew up the plans of our Scots Kirk. It is the only new church that he planned outside of France. His design was influenced by the British neo-gothic style, including the pews, chairs, pulpit and Communion Table. The interior roof design with its exposed beams is typically English in conception and very unusual in Switzerland. The French influence can be detected in the high pitched roof with its row of clerestory windows. The construction was directed by a local architect, Jules Verrey, a specialist in church buildings. The Scots Kirk was formally dedicated on 12th April 1877.
publicado por LUCIANO às 18:25
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

GIACOMO BAROZZI DA VIGNOLA

Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da (1507-1573), Arquiteto italiano:

Igreja Sant’Andrea (1554);
Igreja de Gesù (1568) em Roma;
pátio do Palazzo Farnesio (1572) em Caprarola, na Itália.

Venezia, Nel Negozio Remondini (presumibilmente nel 1648). In folio (mm 440 x 300), legatura in cartone rigido, frontespizio inciso a piena pagina e 42 tavole caligrafiche, tavola dei cinque Ordini di architettura, tavole numerate dalla 4 alla 32 e 12 non numerate.
publicado por LUCIANO às 18:22
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

ROBERT VENTURI

Venturi, Robert (1925-), Arquiteto norte-americano:

Guild House Philadelphia (1960-1963);
Humanities Building os State University of New York (1968-1973).

Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Venturi graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1947 and received his M.F.A. there in 1950. He furthered his studies as a Rome Prize Fellow at the American Academy in Rome from 1954 to 1956. Shortly after his return to this country, he taught an architectural theory course at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Architecture. In the past three decades since, he has lectured at numerous other institutions including Yale, Princeton, Harvard, UCLA, Rice and the American Academy in Rome. Photo by Byunggu Yu.
publicado por LUCIANO às 18:18
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

HENRY VAN DE VELDE

Velde, Van de (1863-1957), Arquiteto alemão:

Teatro de Werkbund (1914), em Colônia, Alemanha;
Folkwang Museum de Hagen (1900-1902).
publicado por LUCIANO às 18:12
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

JÖRN UTZON

Utzon, Jörn (1918-),Arquiteto dinamarquês:

Ópera de Sidney (1956), na Austrália.

Jørn Utzon AC (B. 1918), architect, designed the Sydney Opera House. Utzon trained in Copenhagen , where his first building of note was his own home (1952). Four years later he won the international competition to build the Opera House, and worked for years on the project before arriving in Australia in 1963. Construction got off to a premature start, and Utzon’s brief changed at Stage 1. By 1964 he was in dispute with the government over his choice of subcontractors for Stage 3. In 1965 a newly elected government, having promised to ‘do something’ about rising costs on the project, demanded detailed plans and firm timelines; Utzon was also battling his engineering firm, Ove Arup. He resigned in 1966, after the Minister for Public Works stopped paying him. The Opera House was completed in 1973, with interiors totally different from Utzon’s models. Utzon was named an Honorary AC in 1985, and in 1999 he and his architect son Jan were appointed ‘consultants’ to ensure that any future changes to the building would accord with his design principles. In 2003 he was awarded architecture’s outstanding honour, the Pritzker Prize.
publicado por LUCIANO às 18:09
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

EDUARDO TORROJA

Torroja, Eduardo (1899-1961), Arquiteto espanhol:

Praça de Abastos (1933);
Hipódromo de Madri (1935), Espanha.
publicado por LUCIANO às 18:05
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

KENZO TANGE

Tange, Kenzo (1913), Arquiteto japonês:

Memorial de Hiroshima (1951);
Palácio Municipal de Tokio (1957);
Catedral de Santa Maria (1962) em Tokio, no Japão

Kenzo Tange
Born and brought up in modest circumstances, Tange never expected to become an architect. But by 1938, he was working with Kunio Maekawa, who had practised with Le Corbusier in Paris.
publicado por LUCIANO às 14:56
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

LOUIS HENRY SULLIVAN

Sullivan, Louis Henry (1856-1924), Arquiteto norte-americano:

Edifício Wainwright (1890-1891);
Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store (1903-1904) em Chicago, nos EUA.

Louis Henry Sullivan was born in Boston in 1856. His parents moved to Chicago in 1872 but Sullivan stayed behind to study for a year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's architectural program -- the first in the nation. Dropping out to practice architecture, Sullivan worked in Philadelphia with Frank Furness and then with William Le Baron Jenney in Chicago. Feeling he needed more classroom time, Sullivan spent another year at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1874. In Rome, Renaissance art sent Sullivan's imagination soaring, and the young traveler decided he should emulate Michelangelo's spirit of creation rather than imitate the styles of earlier periods.
publicado por LUCIANO às 14:52
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

JAMES STIRLING

Stirling (1926-1992), Arquiteto inglês:

Biblioteca de Cambridge (1968);
Close Gallery (1980-1986) em Londres;
Centro Científico de Berlim (1977-1988);
Centro de Artes Cênicas da Universidade de Cornell (1983) em Nova York, nos EUA.

NEW YORK, April 15: British architect James Stirling was named as the winner of the third annual international Pritzker Architecture Prize at a press conference held at New York's Museum of Modern Art. In making the announcement, Jay A. Pritzker, president of the Hyatt Foundation, which administers and funds the prize , presented the 55-year-old Stirling with a check for $100,000. The second award element, a cast of a Henry Moore sculpture created especically for the purpose, will be presented at a Washington banquet next month.

Stirling, a Scottish-born architect whose work includes museums, educational institutions and private residences, was the 1980 recipient of the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture, presented by the Royal Institute of British Architects. Among his current and upcoming projects are buildings for the Fogg Museum, Cambridge, and Columbia University, New York, as well as the new Turner Museum at London's Tate Gallery.

In a development in Fukuoka, Japan, his Nexus Housing is a project consisting of 24 individual houses, each three stories high. Koolhaas also has projects in Portugal, Korea and Germany, the latter being a new embassy for the Netherlands in Berlin, which is currently under construction.

The first Pritzker Architecture Prize was presented in 1979 to Philip Johnson of the United States, and the second, i n 1980, was awarded to Mexico's Luis Barragan. Stirling was chosen to receive the 1981 Prize by a distinguished international jury: J. Carter Brown, Director, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Lord Clark of Saltwood (Kenneth Clark), author and art historian; Arata Isozaki, architect and critic; Philip Johnson, architect and 1979 Pritzker Laureate; J. Irwin Miller, chairman, executive committee, Cumins Engine Company, and architecture patron; and Cesar Pelli, architect and Dean of the School of Archiecture, Yale University.

In announcing the Prize, Mr. Pritzker quoted from a statement by 1979 Laureate Philip Johnson: "James Stirling has been the Wunderkind of modern architecture for some twenty years. Today he is a mature leader of world architecture.

"He is probably best known for a series of un built competitive projects culminating today in two great buildings actually under construction in Germany: a Museum in Stuttgart and a Scientific Institute in Berlin, and three in the United States.

"His work began at a time when the Modern Movement was still in ascendance and his variations, angles, details in the style were extraordinarily original. Today he is in the vanguard of the newer movement, which includes historic allusion and contextural consideration.



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publicado por LUCIANO às 14:48
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

ALVARO SIZA

Siza, Alvaro (1933-), Arquiteto português:

projetos de habitação social (1974), no Porto;
Banco Borges e Irmão (1982), em Vila do Condo, em Portugal.
publicado por LUCIANO às 14:45
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

HANS SCHAROUN

Scharoun, Hans (1893-1972), Arquiteto alemão:

Edifício da Siemens Stadt (1929) em Berlim;
Edifício da Philarmônica de Berlim (1964), na Alemanha.

One critic castigated the Kulturforum, an ensemble of galleries, museums and concert halls in the western part of Berlin, as an arcadia in the heart of Berlin, and in doing so he spoke the truth. In fact it was there that Hans Scharoun made his call (first expressed in the early nineteen-twenties) for contemporary sites for the community and city landmarks to be created, to guide the consciousness of the citizens. Pride of place was to be given to a building dedicated to the arts, and in truth the resulting Philharmonie was to become his masterpiece.

Hans Scharoun was born in Bremen on 20 September 1893, grew up in nearby Bremerhaven and studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule Berlin between 1912 and 1914. Following World War I, he worked as a freelance architect in Insterburg, East Prussia (now Chernachovsk, Russian Federation) until 1925, before taking up teaching at Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) and finally returning to Berlin as a freelance architect in 1932. In Berlin he was also to hold the Chair of Urban Development at the Technische Universität from 1946 to 1958. During this period he organised colloquia on urban development at the Technische Universität, which found a great resonance, and he considered it important that his institute be both a teaching and research institution, allowing students to take part in practical as well as research tasks.

In the midst of the dawning Neues Bauen (New Building) movement during the nineteen-twenties, Scharoun had begun to discover his own style, and under the influence of Hugo Häring found his way to the school of organic building. Like Häring, he stressed that a "supportive idea" had to be present in order to determine a building's design. According to Scharoun, this idea did not just consist of a mere fulfilment of a purpose - on the contrary, it comprised an externally rigid, mechanical principle. There had to be, so to speak, a living building, developing within itself and with an internal legitimacy.

The Kulturforum is a well-known example of this architecture. When music is heard unexpectedly, people join up to form a circle. Even though this is a particularly unpretentious observation, it was the principle that inspired Scharoun to design a Philharmonie that could not have been simpler or more ingenious. He transposed this process into a concert hall and let the music form its heart - both spatially and optically. The audience is arranged concentrically around the podium where the musicians stand, and revitalized sounds emanate upwards as if from a fountain of youth, thanks to acoustic features never encountered before.

Opposite the Philharmonie is the new Staatsbibliothek (state library) building, only completed after Scharoun's death. While the Berlin Wall still stood, a larger second building was needed. But, always the visionary, Hans Scharoun designed a library for a future Berlin without a Wall. However, during his lifetime, an authority gained overall supervision and halved the amount of space available to readers planned originally. Despite further major intrusions, the idea of a reader-oriented library at least still survived: there were no hampering courthouse-style staircases full of intimidating steps and no dismal heavy doors demarcating tightly enclosed areas. Instead, readers glide through the vast reading room, and another broad hall (itself expanding into harmony) lets visitors softly glide into the bright peace and quiet. The spirit is free, like the wings of heaven.




publicado por LUCIANO às 14:41
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

JACOPOTI SANSOSVERINO

Sansosverino, Jacopoti (1486-1570), Arquiteto italiano:

Biblioteca Marciana;
Palazzo Corner, em Veneza, Itália.
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:42
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

PAUL RUDOLPH

Rudolph, Paul (1918-1997), Arquiteto norte-americano:

Laboratório ENDO (1965), Garden City, New Jersey;
Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Yale (1960);
Manhattan Bridge e Willianburg Bridge (1980), EUA.

"Architecture is a personal effort, and the fewer people coming between you and your work the better. This keeps some people from practicing architecture...If an architect cares enough, and practices architecture as an art, then he must initiate design; he must create rather than make judgments." -- Paul Rudolph (1918-1997)

Paul Rudolph was the architect responsible for UMass Dartmouth’s original master plan and the design of most of the buildings on campus.

Born in 1918 in Elkton, Kentucky, Rudolph graduated from the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in 1940 and in 1941 began advanced studies at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design. His studies were interrupted by World War II and three years of service in the U.S. Navy. After the war, Rudolph returned to Harvard, where he studied with renowned architect Walter Gropius. After a decade of success designing private residences primarily in the South, Rudolph began to receive commissions for larger public projects and in 1958 was named chairman of the department of architecture at Yale University. It was here that he designed one of his most famous works, the Art and Architecture Building, which was completed in 1963.

Rudolph left Yale in 1965 to open his own firm, continuing to design inventive and original buildings for both the public and private sectors. Like many architects of the period, he believed that urban design could contribute to social reform.

Rudolph’s work exhibits a highly personal and uncompromising style, and his buildings are designed to excite and challenge its occupants. The strong vertical striations are obtained with either ribbed-block or ribbed wood forms. Lively and rugged, his buildings are often made from exposed concrete surfaces. The rough texture is achieved by hammering away at the poured concrete to expose the inner aggregate. The interiors are dynamic, playing with light and shadow, drama and abstraction. Beams slide past vertical supports; walls are de-emphasized. Built-in furnishings enhance and divide the spaces.




publicado por LUCIANO às 13:38
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

ALDO ROSSI

Rossi, Aldo (1931-1997), Arquiteto italiano:

Complexo Residencial Gallaratese II (1970-1973) em Milão;
Novo Cemitério de San Cataldo (1971) em Modena;
Reconstrução da Ópera de Gênova (1983-1990) em Gênova, na Itália.
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:35
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

GIULIO ROMANO

Romano, Giulio (1492-1546), Arquiteto italiano:

Palazzo del Té (1524-1530);
Tratamento urbanístico de Mântua
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:32
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE

Rohe, Ludwig Mies van der (1886-1969), Arquiteto alemão educado nos EUA:

Conjunto Weissenhof (1927) em Stuttgart, Alemanha;
Crown Hall ITT (1952-1956) em Chicago;
Edifício Seagram (1954-1958) em Nova York, nos EUA;
Galeria Nacional (1962-1968) em Berlim Oriental, na Alemanha.
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:28
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

RICHARD GEORGE ROGERS

Rogers, Richard George (1933-), Arquiteto inglês:

Centro Georges Pompidou (1977) em Paris, França;
Edifício do Lloyds (1979-1984) em Londres, na Inglaterra.

Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside FRIBA is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs. He was born in Florence in 1933 and attended the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London, before graduating from Yale School of Architecture in 1962.
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:23
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

RENZO PIANO

Piano, Renzo (1937-), Arquiteto italiano:

Centro Georges Pompidou (1977) em Paris, França;
Museu Menil Collection (1981) em Houston, nos EUA.

Renzo Piano was born in Genoa (Italy) on September 14, 1937. He graduated in 1964 from the school of Architecture of the Milan Polytechnic. As a student, he was working under the design guidance of Franco Albini, while also regularly attending his father's building sites where he got a valuable practical experience. Between 1965 and 1970, he completed his formation and work experiments with study travels in Britain and America. It was at that time he met Jean Prouvé: their friendship would have a deep influence on his professional life. In 1971, he founded the "Piano & Rogers" agency with Richard Rogers, his partner on the Centre Pompidou project in Paris. In 1977, he founded "l'Atelier Piano & Rice" along with the engineer Peter Rice, a professional personality who would work with him on many projects, until his death in 1993. He then founded Renzo Piano Building Workshop, with offices in Paris and Genoa. Some 100 people work with him (among which architects, engineers, specialists…) in close collaboration with some associated architects, linked to him by years of experience.
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:18
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

BALDASSARE PERUZZI

Peruzzi, Baldassare (1481-1536), Arquiteto italiano:

Villa Farnesina (circa 1505);
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne (1532) em Roma, na Itália.

Italian uomo universale of the High Renaissance, influenced by Bramante and Raphael. His first great building was the Palazzo della Farnesina, Rome (1505–11), an exquisite house (sometimes referred to as a villa) with frescoes by Ugo da Carpi (d. 1532), Peruzzi himself, Raphael, Giulio Romano, and Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (1477–1549—known as Il Sodoma (the Sodomite)). Essentially a square on plan, it has a loggia between two projecting wings on the garden-front. In 1520 he was appointed Architect (with Sangallo) at St Peter's, but fled the city after the Sack of Rome (1527), settling in Siena, where until 1532 he was engaged on strengthening the fortifications, and remodelled the Church of San Domenico (1531–3). From 1531 he was again working at St Peter's, Rome, and was appointed Architect to the basilica in 1534. The Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne, Rome (1532–7), however, is reckoned to be his masterpiece: an ingeniously planned building on a difficult site, it has a curved façade to the street with Tuscan columns and pilasters on the ground-floor arranged in pairs. The whole front is rusticated, and the piano nobile is separated from the ground-floor by an entablature. Above the piano nobile are two rows of small windows—the lower has architraves with elaborate frames, the patterns of which were to be developed as strapwork by Serlio and disseminated through his publications all over Europe. The courts which are arranged to be similar to Roman atria are on two different axes. Certain details of this palazzo (such as the frames of the second-floor windows and the freedom with which the Orders are used) suggest proto-Mannerism.
publicado por LUCIANO às 13:13
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

ANDREA DI PIETRO PALLADIO

Palladio, Andrea di Piero (1508-1580), Arquiteto italiano:

Villa Rotonda (1550-1551) em Vicenza;
Igreja San Francisco della Vigna (1562) em Veneza, na Itália.

The palazzi, villas, and churches of Andrea Palladio are among the unforgettable monuments of Venice and the Veneto, but it was his Quattro libri that earned the man and his architecture international renown. First published in 1570, Palladio's books use classical antiquity as a guide for the construction of buildings. The Quattro libri can be distinguished from earlier architectural treatises by the prominent discussion of Palladio's own works and by the use of terms familiar to contemporary architects and artisans. His clear, concise prose is enhanced by extensive woodcut illustrations that include plans and elevations of the buildings discussed as well as cross-sections and images of details. Figures and scales are used to indicate proportions and to provide a sense of the absolute dimensions of each building, giving the reader a new visual ability to comprehend each work. As one of the last great architects of the High Renaissance, Palladio translated the language of classical antiquity into a flexible and distinctive vocabulary that was used internationally by architects well into the nineteenth century.

publicado por LUCIANO às 13:08
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

RICHARD NEUTRA

Neutra, Richard (1892-1970), Arquiteto norte-americano:

Lovell Health House (1927-1929);
Corona School Bell (1935);
Channel Heights (1942);
Kaufman House (1946), EUA.

Richard Neutra é considerado uma das maiores influências dos arquitetos modernistas.
Nasceu em Viena, em 1892 e morreu em Los Angeles em 1970. Trabalhou em Berlim com o arquiteto Eric Mendelsonh, quando estudante, mas logo veio para os Estados Unidos.A obra de Frank Lloyd Wright foi sua primeira inspiração, desde que Richard e sua esposa Dionne chegaram em NY em 1923. Com o apoio do arquiteto Rudolph Schindler, como ele de origem austríaca, mas nascido no Sul da Califórnia, fez o projeto da Lovell House (1929), seu trabalho mais conhecido. Sobre sua obra dizia que era “a mais amistosa relação entre ciência, técnica, industrialização e bom gosto”.


publicado por LUCIANO às 09:55
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

JOHANN BALTHASAR NEUMANN

Neumann, Johann Balthasar (1687-1753), Arquiteto alemão:

Escadarias do Castelo de Brühl (1743) em Würzburg, Alemanha;
Igrejas de Vierzehnheilingen (1743-1747) na Áustria.


Balthasar Neumann galt schon zu Lebzeiten als einer der größten Baumeister. Nach dem Tode Welschs und Hildebrandts war er unbestritten der bedeutendste Architekt von Köln bis Konstanz und vom Main zur Donau; um die Jahrhundertmitte entstand in diesem Bereich fast kein großes Bauwerk mehr, ohne daß man sich nicht wenigstens seines Rates versichert hätte.



publicado por LUCIANO às 09:51
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

PIER LUIGI NERVI

Nervi, Pier Luigi (1891-1979), Arquiteto italiano:

Palácio de Exposições em Turim (1948-1949);
Sala de Conferências da Unesco (1953);
Palácio de Esportes (1956-1960) em Roma, na Itália.

Italian engineer and architect, internationally renowned for his technical ingenuity and dramatic sense of design, especially as applied to large-span structures built of reinforced concrete. His important works include a prefabricated 309-foot-span arch for the Turin Exhibition (1949–50)
publicado por LUCIANO às 09:47
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

AUGUSTE HENRI VICTOR GRANDJEAN DE MONTIGNY

Montigny, Auguste Henri Victor Grandjean de (1776-1850), Arquiteto francês:

Reforma da Villa Medici (1803) em Roma, Itália;
Antigo edifício da Praça do Comércio (1820);
Prédio da Alfândega (1821) no Rio de Janeiro, RJ.

Grandjean de Montigny nasceu a 15 de julho de 1776 em Paris. Foi excelente estudante de arquitetura e, em 1799, ganhou o prestigioso Prix de Rome, o mais importante da arte nesse momento. Como prêmio ganhou uma estadia de quatro anos em Roma, onde pôde estudar os monumentos clássicos. Depois voltou à França e trabalhou para o governo de Napoleão. Seu mais importante projeto foi a reforma do Palácio Bellevue, em Kassel, na Vestfália (Alemanha), nesse momento sob controle napoleônico.

Em 1815, após a derrota de Napoleão, Grandjean teve de voltar a Paris. Como simpatizante do Imperador, porém, já não gozava do prestígio de antes. Juntou-se então ao grupo de artistas que, organizados por Joachim Lebreton e a convite do governo português, preparava-se para partir para o Rio de Janeiro, onde D. João VI e a côrte portuguesa se haviam instalado em 1808.




Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

RAFAEL JOSÉ MONEO

Moneo, Rafael José (1937-), Arquiteto espanhol:

Museu Nacional de Arte Romana (1980-1985), em Mérida;
Banco de Espanha (1983), em Jaen, na Espanha.

When you visit a building by Rafael Moneo, you are intensely aware of the architecture. But you are equally aware of yourself as a presence within this architecture. You find yourself turning and climbing. You emerge onto a high bright overlook, or descend into a darker cave. You feel yourself to be traversing a path, a path that is never fully mapped out but instead offers choices. Having to choose, you explore, you witness, you quest.

When Moneo writes of his buildings, he behaves like a novelist. He tends to establish a point of view from which the experience of the architecture is perceived. The point of view is that of the visitor to the building, a fictional character imagined by Moneo. Seldom does he describe a building as an autonomous artifact. Instead it is an event in the life of a witness, or more likely a sequence of events. For example:

At the Davis Museum: "The stair becomes the home of the viewer...inside the stair, the viewer becomes the owner who possesses the collection."

At the Miro Foundation: "The visitor following [the entry path] will be surprised to find a beautiful, ample square. From here he can go on to explore the garden."

But Moneo's tendency to create fictional character goes beyond this invention of an observing consciousness. The building, too, has feelings.

Of the Miro Foundation: "Sharp and intense, the volume ignores its surroundings or, better still, answers with rage the hostile buildings that have worn down the previously beautiful slope."

Of Davis: "And indeed, this Museum tries to reflect on, and to give testimony, to, this particular collection."

Finaly, writing about the Museum of Roman Art, Moneo describes "the wish of enclosure that is always present in the architecture of the Museum."

In this architect's mind, what is taking place is a social and intellectual encounter between two characters, the building and the visitor. They meet, they exchange glances, they inquire of one another.

And like all meetings, this one occurs at a particular time and in a particular place.

The embodiment in architecture of time and place is Rafael Moneo's deepest concern. It is not a fashionable concern today. To many designers and students, the idea that a building should respond to the past, or to its physical surroundings, is regarded as passé. We live in a single worldwide culture, it is argued. A new scale and a new kind of architecture are required. Indeed we may think of ourselves as existing not in time and place at all, but rather in cyberspace — that electronic universe of signals and impulses which, ideally at least, is both timeless and placeless. Being so, it must also, of course, be immaterial.

Moneo is perhaps the single most important figure on the opposite side of this question. For him, architecture does not exist except as built of sensually apprehensible materials. A Moneo building is deeply embedded in its time and place and is expressive of them. Architecture thus becomes a way of knowing. Again, the best way to illustrate is to quote the architect, whose writings are among the most eloquent by any artist of this century.

"News, films, TV, advertising — everything pushes us towards a life understood as a continuous consumption of information received through images. No wonder that architecture, in today's world, no longer represents power. The media are the vehicle of power."



publicado por LUCIANO às 09:39
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

JULES HARDOUIN MANSART

Mansart, Jules Hardouin (1646-1708), Arquiteto francês:

Capela de Versailles (1698);
Les Invalides (1679) em Paris, na França.

Né à Paris en 1646, mort à Marly en 1708, petit neveux de François Mansart, Jules Hardouin est le fils d’un artiste peintre et descendant du sculpteur Germain Pilon.

Il est l’élève de Libéral Bruant et de son oncle François Mansart, qui n’a aucune admiration pour lui. Ce qui n’empêche pas Jules Hardouin d’associer le nom de son grand oncle au sien en 1668.

Entrepreneur en bâtiments avec son frère Michel, il reçoit ses premières commandes de l’Etat vers 1672.

Il bénéficie très jeune d’une grande renommée en reconstruisant le château du Val, mais sa carrière se fera de 1673 à 1678, grâce à la protection de Mme de Montespan, de Louvois, de Condé, de Le Nôtre d’abord et du roi ensuite.

En 1681 il est nommé Premier architecte du roi. Anobli en 1682, il devient intendant en 1685 et inspecteur général des bâtiments en 1691. Il est fait comte de Sagonne en 1702.

publicado por LUCIANO às 05:50
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

ROBERT MAILLART

Maillart, Robert (1872-1940), Arquiteto suiço:

Pavilhão do Concreto – Exposição Nacional de Zurich (1939);
Ponte de Zuoz (1901) em Engadina;
Ponte de Salgina (1929-1930).

Swiss engineer Robert Maillart's use of reinforced concrete, beginning in 1901, effected a revolution in structural art. Maillart, all of whose main bridges are in Switzerland, was the first 20th-century designer to break completely with the masonry tradition and put concrete into forms technically
publicado por LUCIANO às 05:47
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH

Mackintosh, Charles Renie (1868-1928), Arquiteto escocês:

Cranston Tea Room (1897) em Glasgow,
Edifício de Arte de Glasgow (1898-1890), na Escócia.
publicado por LUCIANO às 05:42
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

LOUIS LE VAU

Le Vau, Louis (1612-1670), Arquiteto francês:

Palácio de Vaux Le Vicomte (1657), em Paris;
Hotel Lambert (1644), em Paris.
Louis Le Vau naquit en 1612 et mourut en 1670 à Paris. Son père fut tailleur de pierre avant d'être maçon.

Etudes et formation:

Auprès de grands entrepreneurs, sur les chantiers, et à la lecture des traité d'architecture ( "manière de bastir" de Pierre Le Muet)

Sa carrière:

Louis Le Vau entreprit la construction de nombreux châteaux et hôtels qui lui vaudront sa nomination au titre de premier architecte, intendant et ordonnateur des bâtiments royaux en 1654.



publicado por LUCIANO às 05:39
Terça-feira, 18 DE Março DE 2008

CLAUDE NICOLAS LEDOUX

Ledoux, Claude Nicolas (1736-1806), Arquiteto francês:

Castelo de Bénouville (1768) em Caen;
Mansão Thélusson (1780);
projeto das portas de Paris (1782) em Paris, na França.

Architecte considéré comme le précurseur de l'architecture fonctionnelle, il donne les plans du théâtre. Bâti de 1778 à 1784, soous la direction de l'architecte Bertrand, il est de conception tout à fait nouvelle pour l'époque. Ledoux réalise une salle en amphithéâtre, supprime les loges, dote le parterre de sièges et crée la première fosse d'orchestre au monde (la salle, détruite par un incendie en 1958, est reconstruite en 1995).
publicado por LUCIANO às 05:32

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